1964: Neanderthals are a sub-
species of humans
1997: Neanderthals are a separate
species (based on mtDNA find)
The results of mitochondrial DNA show clearly that
Neandertal was not our direct ancestor, unlike earlier
hypotheses made by some paleoanthropologists.
Luigi Cavalli-Sforza (Professor of genetics Stanford
Genes, People, and Languages,
2000, p. 35.