Educational Programs


Monthly on Thurs
Cedar Park Church
16300 112th Ave NE,
Bothell, WA 98011

Seattle Creation Conference

May 30-31, 2014
Woodin Valley Baptist Church
5400 228th Street S.E.
Bothell, WA 98021
Watch 2013 Videos

Creation Science Store

Available payment options

Facebook   YouTube   God Tube

Anamolously Occurring Fossils

by John Woodmorappe

Creation Research Society Quarterly
Volume 18(4), March 1982

This table is a compilation of over 200 published instances of anomalously occurring fossils. At left is the kind of fossil(s) involved followed by the accepted age of occurrence, the instance of anomalous occurrence, its locality, and the reference. Instances were tabulated as separate entries when they involved: 1) different fossils (usually), 2) different "proper" ages, 3) different anomalous ages, or 4) different geographical locations (different nations, provinces, sedimentary basins, etc.) The instances entered under references 70, 73, 77, 78, 88, 100, and 150 are subaqueous occurrences (deep marine) offshore marine, or lacustrine): most others involve sedimentary lithologies on land. References 70, 17, 72, 82, 84, 89, 96, 147, 148, 153, and 160 are "downwash," "infiltration," or supposed "contamination." Most other entries are .,reworking" of fossils into younger-age beds. A few of the entries in this table are claimed by the cited authors to be possible stratigraphic-range extensions rather than necessarily "reworking". This table does not include fossils of clearly secondary position (such as fossils within constituents of conglomerates and the very many instances of Phanerozoic fossils in Pleistocene glacial till).

Additional Resources

Type of fossil Proper age Found in Location Reference
Foraminifers Pleistocene Tertiary Atlantic Ocean  70
Pollen Tertiary Quaternary Boikow, Poland  146
Pollen Tertiary Cretaceous East Netherlands  147
Mammal bones Tertiary (late) Tertiary (early) Kazakhstan, USSR  148
Algae (?) Tertiary Cretaceous France  71
Foraminifers Tertiary Cretaceous Nigeria  72
Nannoplankton Tertiary (lower) Tertiary (higher) Tabcla, Syria  164
Spores Tertiary (recent) Permian Southland, New Zealand  165
Spores Tertiary Pleistocene North Caspia, USSR  166
Foraminifers Tertiary Cretaceous North Italy  167
Pollen Tertiary Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR  168
Palm wood Tertiary Jurassic Utah, USA  169
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Trinidad, West Indies  206
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Victoria, Australia  207
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Hungary  208
Nannoplankton Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Romania  209
Spores Tertiary (early) Jurassic Louisiana-Texas, USA  210
Mammal bones Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Northeast Siberia, USSR  ?
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Ionian Sea  212
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary West Israel  213
Coccoliths Cretaceous Tertiary Crimea, USSR  214
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Kazan, USSR  215
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary British Columbia, Canada  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Arctic Canada  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Fushun, China  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Shandong, China  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary South Coastal China  216
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Spit/bergen, Norway  217
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Ural Mts., USSR  217
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary West Siberia, USSR  217
Dinoflagellate Cretaceous Tertiary Australia 170
Nannoplankton Cretaceous Tertiary Glogow, Poland 171
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Alabama, USA  172
Nannoflora Cretaceous Tertiary Zinda Pir, W. Pakistan  173
Pollen Cretaceous Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR  168
Nannoflora Cretaceous Tertiary Tang-E-Bijar, Iran  174
Foraminifers Cretaceous Jurassic Scania, Sweden  175
Pollen Cretaceous Cambrian Holy Cross Mts., Poland  176
Nannoplankton Cretaceous Tertiary Ukraine, USSR  177
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Utah, USA  149
Spores Cretaceous Pleistocene Newfoundland, Canada  ISO
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada  ISO
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary West Germany  151
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Czechosiovakia  152
Foraminifers Cretaceous Quaternary Adelie Coast, Antarctica  73
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Austria  74
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Sweden  75
Nannoplankton Cretaceous Tertiary Alps.Carpalhians, Europe  76
Nannofossils Cretaceous Tertiary west, southwest Pacific  77
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Louisiana, USA  78
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Venezuela  79
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Wyoming, USA  79
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary California, USA  80
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Netherlands  81
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Utah, USA  81
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary England  75
Pollen Jurassic Permian Sariz, Antalya, Turkey  82
Spores Jurassic Tertiary Isle of Mull, Scotland  83
Spores Jurassic Precambrian Ukraine. USSR  84
Coccoliths Jurassic Silurian North Africa  153
Pollen Jurassic Tertiary Utah, USA  149
Spores Jurassic Cretaceous Newfoundland, Canada  ISO
Pollen Jurassic Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada  ISO
Dinoflagellate Jurassic Cretaceous California, USA  154
Dinoflagellate Jurassic Tertiary California, USA  154
Spores Jurassic Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia  89
Spores Jurassic Triassic Northeast Siberia, USSR 218
Pollen Jurassic Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR  168
Spores "Mesozoic" Pleistocene North Caspia, USSR  166
Spores Jurassic Permian Northeast Siberia, USSR  218
Spores Jurassic Cambrian Northeast Siberia, USSR  218
Spores Triassic Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada  237
Spores Triassic (and/or older) Jurassic Yukon, Canada  178
Spores Triassic Cretaceous Alberta, Canada 219  219
Ostracodes Triassic Tertiary Hungary  85
Spores Triassic Jurassic Andoya, Norway  86
Conodonts Triassic Cretaceous Cameroons  87
Conodonts Triassic Jurassic Japan  87
Spores Triassic Tertiary Kutch, India 155
Pollen Triassic Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada   ISO
Pollen Triassic Tertiary Utah, USA  149
Spores Triassic Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia  89
Pollen "Mesozoic" Tertiary Atlantic Ocean  88
Spores "Mesozoic" Tertiary Hungary  83
Brachiopods Permian Triassic Salt Range, Pakistan  142
Conodonts Permian Triassic Salt Range, Pakistan  142
Pollen Permian Triassic Utah, USA  149
Spores Permian Cretaceous Kutch, India  156
Conodonts Permian Triassic Akasaka, Japan  157
Spores Permian Tertiary Kerala, India  155
Spores Permian Tertiary Kutch, India  155
Spores Permian Cretaceous Madhya Pradesh, India  155
Pollen Permian Tertiary Nagaland, India  158
Spores Permian Cretaceous Alberta, Canada  219
Spores Permian Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada  238
Fusulinids Permian Triassic Mine, Japan  180
Pollen Permian Triassic Southeast Siberia, USSR  220
Pollen Permian Tertiary Assam, India  158
Pollen Permian Tertiary Maghalaya, India  159
Spores Permian Triassic Somerset, England  19
Pollen Permian Jurassic Kutch, India  91
Pollen Permian Tertiary South Australia  91
Pollen Permian Cretaceous Victoria, Australia  91
Ammonoids Permian Triassic KapStosch, Creenland  92
Spores Permian Tertiary Hungary  83
Spores Permian Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia  89
Spores Permian Devonian Canning Basin, Australia  89
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Poland  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Sweden  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic England  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Scotland  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Latvia, USSR  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Denmark  93
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Baltic Russia  93
Spores Carboniferous Tertiary Arkansas, USA  93
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia  89
Fusulinids Carboniferous Pleistocene Utah, USA  89
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Devon, England  95
Spores Carboniferous Precambrian Onega, USSR  96
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Linlburg, Netherlands  91
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Krakow, Poland  97
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Hungary  84
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Alabama, USA  84
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Donets Basin, USSR  84
Pollen Carboniferous Jurassic Donets Basin, USSR  84
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Germany  93
Spores Carboniferous Permian Pakistan  93
Acritarchs Carboniferous Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada  150
Pollen Carboniferous Devonian Missouri-Iowa, USA  160
Pollen Carboniferous Cretaceous Montana, USA  221
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Montana, USA  221
Conodonts Carboniferous Devonian Craz/Styria, Austria  222
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Southeast Siberia, USSR  220
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Alberta, Canada  219
Conodonts Carboniferous (lower) Carboniferous (medial) New Mexico, USA  223
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada  238
Spores Carboniferous Permian Devonshire, England  179
Spores Carboniferous Triassic Devonshire, England  179
Fusulinids Carboniferous Triassic Mine, Japan  180
Spores Carboniferous Pleistocene Ohio, USA  181
Spores Carboniferous Permian Yukon, Canada  182
Brachiopods Carboniferous Permian Yukon, Canada  182
Pollen Carboniferous Permian Caucasia, USSR  183
Trilobite "Late Paleozoic" Tertiary Utah, USA  184
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic West Arctic Islands, Canada  185
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Missouri, USA  186
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Canning Basin, Australia  179
Spores Devonian Permian East West Australia  179
Crinoids Devonian Carboniferous Pamir Mts., USSR  187
Conodonts Devonian Silurian Texas, USA  188
Algal Cysts Devonian Cretaceous Northeastern Brazil  189
Pollen Devonian Permian Caucasia, USSR  183
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Yukon, Canada  182
Spores Devonian Permian Yukon, Canada  182
Spores Devonian Pleistocene Ohio, USA  181
Spores Devonian Jurassic West Arctic Islands, Canada  185
Spores Devonian Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada  238
Spores Devonian (medial) Devonian (upper) Belorussia, USSR  224
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Kansas, USA  225
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous New Mexico, USA  223
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Graz/Styria, Austria  222
Conodonts Devonian Tertiary Graz/Styria, Austria  222
Conodonts Devonian Pleistocene Graz/Styria, Austria  222
Brachiopods Devonian (lower) Devonian (medial) California, USA  226
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Kazakhstan, USSR  227
Conodonts Devonian Silurian Arkansas, USA  228
Chitinozoans Devonian Jurassic East Bhutan  229
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Nevada, USA  161
Foraminifers Devonian Carboniferous Nevada, USA  161
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Bolivia  143
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Devonshire, England  162
Acritarchs Devonian (and/or older) Carboniferous Newfoundland, Canada   ISO
Spores Devonian Triassic Devon, England  95
Conodonts Devonian Triassic Kockatea, Australia  89
Spores Devonian Cretaceous Otorowiri, Australia  89
Thelodont, Devonian Permian Canning Basin, Australia  89
Acanthodian Fish Scales /Spores Devonian Cretaceous Permian Basin, Australia  89
Pollen Devonian Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 145
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Belgium  98
Conodonts Devonian Permian Texas, USA  99
Algal Cysts Devonian Quaternary Lake Michigan, USA  100
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Texas, USA  101
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA  102
Acritarchs Silurian (and/or older) Devonian Witney, England  163
Acritarchs Silurian Devonian Belgium  98
Conodonts Silurian Carboniferous Oklahoma. USA  102
Pollen "Paleozoic" Precambrian Krivyi Rog, USSR  84
Pollen "Paleozoic" Tertiary Atlantic Ocean  88
Spores "Paleozoic" Tertiary Bolivia  143
Spores "Paleozoic" Pleistocene North Caspia, USSR  166
Spores Silurian Ordovician Ohio. USA  230
Chitinozoans Silurian Jurassic East Bhutan  229
Plant tissue Silurian (and/or younger) Ordovician Oklahoma, USA  190
Acritarchs Silurian Carboniferous Ballyvergin, Ireland  191
Crinoids Silurian Carboniferous Pamir Mts., USSR  187
Algal Cysts Silurian Cretaceous Northeast Brazil  189
Conodonts Silurian Devonian Texas, USA  188
Spores Silurian(?) Devonian Belorussia, USSR  224
Chitinozoans Silurian Cretaceous Alaska, USA  231
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Ontario, Canada  192
Conodonts Ordovician Devonian Minnesota, USA  193
Acritarchs Ordovician Tertiary Lough Neagh, Ireland  194
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Missouri, USA  195
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Carnic Alps, Italy  196
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Quibec, Canada  196
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Central Texas, USA  188
Diacrodians Ordovician Precambrian Saxony, East Germany  197
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Illinois, USA  198
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Illinois, Indiana, USA  199
Acritarchs Ordovician Carboniferous Ballyvergin, Ireland  191
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian Ohio, USA  200
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian New York, USA  200
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Central Siberia, USSR  232
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Southeast Indiana, USA  233
Conodonts Ordovician (lower) Ordovician (medial) West Texas, US  234
Graptolites/ Conodonts/ Conodonts Ordovician Devonian Missouri, USA  103
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian Belgium  98
Acritarchs Ordovician Devonian Netherlands-Belgium  98
Conodonts Ordovician Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 102
Spores Ordovician Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA  94
Conodonts Ordovician Cretaceous Colorado, USA  104
Acritarchs "Lower Paleozoic" Triassic Devonshire, England  95
Archeocyathids Cambrian Permian Dwyka, South Africa  105
Trilobites Cambrian (lower) Cambrian (medial) Bornholm, Denmark  202
Acritarchs Cambrian Silurian Comeragh. Ireland  191
Acritarchs Cambrian Carboniferous Ballyvergin, Ireland  191
Trilobites Cambrian Devonian Bielsko-Mogilany, Poland  203
Acritarchs Cambrian Ordovician Shropshire, England  204
Algae Precambrian Cambrian or Ordovician Verkhoyansk, USSR  205
Spores Precambrian Devonian Saratov, USSR  235



68 Gretener. 1977. op.cit., 1). 116.

69 Woodmorappe. 1980. op.cit., p. 212.

70 Gartner S. and B. Lodz. 1972. Reworking and Apparent reworking of Neogene fossil plankton. MP 18:117.

71 Smit J. 1979. Microdium, Its Earliest Occurrence and other Coilsiderations. MI 22:46.

72 Cherie J.D.E.. De Klasz I.D.E. and E.E. Archibong. 1978. Biostratigraphic Study of the Borehold UJO-1, SW Nigeria, with special Emphasis on the Cretaceous Microflora. MI 21:125.

73 Domack E.W., Fairchild W.W., and J.B. Anderson. 1980. Lower Cretaceous; sediment from East Antarctic continental shelf. NA 287:625-6.

74 Gohabandt K.H.A. 1967. The geologic age of the type locality of Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzebaf). MP 13:70.

75 Haynes J. and A.R.M. El-Naggra. 1964. Reworked Upper Cretaceous and Danian planktonic foraminifera in [lie typeThatittian. MP 10:354-5.

76 Bramlette M.N. and E. Marteni. 1964. The great change in the calcarous nannoplankton fossils between the Maestrichtian and Danian. MP 10:294.

77 Thiede J. 198 1. Reworking of Upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic central Pacific deep-sea sediments. NA 289:667-70.

78 Otvis E.G. and W.D. Brock. 1976. Massive Long-Distance Transport and Redeposition of Upper Cretaceous Planktonic Foraminifers in Quaternary Sediment. SP 46:978.

79 Funkhouser J.W. 1969. Factors that Affect Sample Reliability (in Tschudy R.H. and R.A. Scott. 1969. Aspects of Palynology). JW, p. 101.

80 Bramlette M.N. and F.R. Sullivan. 1961. Coccolithophorids and related nannoplankton of the early Tertiary in California. MP 7:133.

81 Jones D.J. 1956. Introduction of Microfossils. Harper Bros, New York, pp. 260-7.

82 Akyol E. 197?. Palynologie Du Permien Infericur De Sariz (Kayseri) Ed De Pamucak Yaylasi (Antalya-Turquie) et Contamination Jurassique Observee, Due Aux Ruisseaux "Pamucak" et "Goynuk". PS 17(l).

83 Phillips L. 1974. Reworked Mesozoic Spores in Tertiary Leaf-Betts on Mull, Scotland. RP 17:221.

84 Krassilov V.A. 1972. (translated 1975). Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants. JW, p. 56-7.

85 Van Morkhoven F.P.C.M. 1962. Post-Paleozoic 0stracoda. EL., Vol 1. p. 126.

86 Sturt B.A., Dalland A., and J.L. Mitchell. 1979. The Age of the Sub Mid-Jurassic Tropical Weathering Profile of Andoya, Northern Norway and the Implications for the Late Palaeozoic Paleogeography in the North Atlantic Region. RU 68(2)527.

87 Muller K.J . and L.C. Mosher. 1971. Post-Triassic Conodonts (in Sweet W.C. and S.M. Bergstrom. 1971. Symposium on Conodont Biostratigraphy. Geological Society of America Memoir 127:467.

88 Wilson L.R. 1964. Recycling, Stratigraphic Leakage, and Faulty Techniques in Palynology. GR 5:429.

89 Veevers J.). 1976. Early Phanerozoic Events on and alongside (lie Australasian-Antarctic Platform. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia 23:203, 190-1.

90 Warrington C. 1979. A Derived Late Permian Palynomorph Assemblage from the Keuper Marl (Late Triassic) of West Somerset. US 1979, 4(3)299.

91 Venkatachala B.S. 1969. Palynology of the Mesozoic Sediments of Kutch. W. Indian, Reworked Permian Pollen from the Upper Jurassic Sediment-A Discussion. Palaeobotanist 18(1)45.

92 Teichert C. and B. Kummel. 1972. Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Kap Stosch Area, East Greenland. CA 20(4)659.

93 Windle T.M.F. 1979. Reworked Carboniferous Spores: An Exampie from the Lower Jurassic of Northeast Scotland. RP 27:174-5.

94 Wilson. 1964. op.cit. p. 428

95 Warrington C. 1971. Palynology of the New Red Sandstone Sequence of the South Devon Coast. US 1971 2(4)307-8.

96 Danilov M.A. and G.V. Kanev. 1979. Discovery of Paleozoic spores in the Central part of the synclonorium of the Vetreny belt of the Baltic Shield. IC 2 1: 1128-9.

97 Muir M.D. 1967. Reworking in Jurassic and Cretaceous Spore Assemblages. RP 5: 148-50.

98 Bless J.M. 1980. Pre-Permian Depositional Environments Around the Brabant Massif in Belgium, the Netherlands. and Germany. Sedimentary Geology 27(1)72, 35, 8-9.

99 Belinken F.H. 1975. Leonardian and Guadalupian (Permian) Conodont Biostraligraphy in Western and Southwestern United States. JP 49:301-2.

100 'Bader R.H. 1981. Stratigraphy, Paleontology. ;,till Palynology of Holocene Deposits in Southwestern Lake Michigan. Unpublished MS Thesis. Northeastern Illinois University, p. 85-90.

101 *'Lindstrom M. 1946. Conodonts EL.. p. 72.

102 "Graysom R. 198 1. Distribution anti Significance (if Allochthonous Conodonts in Early Pennsylvanian rocks of eastern Oklahoma. CA 13(6)279.

103 "Chauff K.M. 1978. Recovery of Ordovician conodonts by hydrochloric acid from phosphate nodules reworked into the Sulphur Springs Formation (Devonian) in Missouri, USA. Geological Magazine 115(3)207-8.

104 Dr. Stif Bergstrom, Professor of Geology, Ohio Stale University. Columbus. Ohio 1980. personal Coil) III till ication ion.

105 Rozanov A. Yu. and F. Debrenne. 1974. Age of Archaeocyathid Assemblages. AJ 274:845.

106 Burdick C.L. 1966. Microflora of the Grand Canyon. RE 3(1)38-50. also: 1972. Progress Report oil Grand Canyon Palynology. RE 9(1)25-30.

107 Bramlette and Sullivan. 196 1. op.cit.. p. 133.

108 Muir. 1967. op.cit., p. 153.

109 Pokorny V. 1965. Principles of Zoological Micropaleontology. Vol. 11, Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York., p. 67.

110 Hass W.I. 1962. Conodonts (in Hass W.H., Hantzchel W., Fisher D.W., Howell B.F., Rhodes F.H.T., Muller K.J., and R.C. Moore. 1962. Miscellanea. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology W38.

111 Lindstrom. 1964. op.cit., p. 73-4.

112 Wilson. 1964. op.cit., p. 427.

113 Muir M.D. and W.A.S. Sarjeant. 1977. Editors Comments (in Muir M.D. and W.A.S. Sarjeant. 1977. Palynology: Part I., Dowden, Hutchinson, anti Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania) p. 223.

114 Bushman J.R. 198 1. Uniformitarianism According to Hutton. journal of Geological Education 29:32-3.

115 Wright C. 1975. Introduction (to Hitchcock E. 1851, reprinted 1975. The Religion of Geology anti Its Connected Sciences. Regina Press, New York) p. 4m.

116 Khain V. Ye. 1963. Lomonosov and Modern Geology. IC 5:714.

117 Sparks J.M. 1978. The apostolic Fathers. Thomas-Nelson Put). Co.. Nashville, New York, p. 41-3.

118 Krauskopf K.B. 1979. Introduction of Geochemistry. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, Sydney. Tokyo, Toronto, p. 435 (2nd Edition).

119 bid, p. 440-1.

120 Williams H. anti A.R. McBirney. 1979. Volcanology Freeman, Cooper, and Co., San Francisco, p. 121-2.

121 Plumstead E.P. 1964. Palaeobotany of Antarctica (in Adie R.J. 1964. Antarctic Geology. JW) 654.

122 Hamilton L.H., Helby R., and G.H. Taylor. 1970. The Occurrence and Significance of Triassic coal in the Volcanic Necks near Sydney. Royal Society of New South Wales journal and Prorerdings 102 (parts 3 and 4) p. 169.

123 Krauskopf. 1979. op.rit., p. 342.

124 'Dickinson W. 1971. Uniformitarianism and Plate Tectonics Science., 174:107.

125 Hunt C.W. 1977. Catastrophic termination of the Last Wisconsin Ice Advance. Observations in Alberta and Idaho. CA 25:456-67.

126 Hunt C.W. 1978. Reply it) L.E. Jackson. CA 26:167.

127 Irvine T.N. 1964. Sedimentary Structures in Layered Ultrabasic Rocks. AG 48:533.

128 Williams L.P. 1973. Review of Steno as Geologist. Aj 273:351.

129 Pattison J.. Smith D.B., and C. Warrington. 1973. A Review of Late Permian and Early Triassic Biostratigraphy in the British Isles (in Logan A. and L.N. Hills. 1973. The Permian and Triassic Systems and Their Mutual Boundary. CA Memoir 2) p. 256.

130 Jodry R.L. 1969. Growth and Dolomitization of Silurian Reefs, St. Clair County, Michigan. AG 53:957.

131 Marvin V.B. 1973. Continental Drift. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C., p. 37-8.

132 Nitecki M.H., Lemke J.L., Pullman H.W., and M.E. Johnson. 1978. Acceptance of plate tectonic theory by geologists. Geology 6:661-4.

133 Neumann R.B. 1981. Review of Historical Biogeography. JP 55(3)693.

134 Marvin. 1973. op.cit., p. 36.

135 Aprodov V.A. 1963. Main Features of Philosophical Materialism in Geological Works of M.V. Lomonosov. IC 5:698.

136 Glaessner M.F. 1967. Principles of Micropaleontology. Hafner Publ. Co.. New York, London, p. 225.

137 Berry W.B.N. and A.J. Boucot. 1973. Correlation of the African Silurian Rocks. Geological Society of American Special Paper 147:60.

138 Cronin J.E.. Boaz N.T., Stringer C.B., and Y. Rak. 1981. Tempo and mode in hominid evolution. NA 292, p. 115.

139 ibid. p. 114-115, 119.

140 ibid, p. 116.

141 Woodmorappe J. 1978. The Cephalopods in the Creation and the Universal Deluge. RE 15(2)97-8. especially Figure 3(i).

142 Kummel B. and C. Teichert. 1970. Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Permian-Triassic Boundary Beds, Salt Range and TransIndus Ranges, West Pakistan (in Kummel B. and C. Teichert. 1970. Stratigraphic Boundary Problems) U. of Kansas Special Publication No. 4), p. 53.

143 Stanley E.A. 1969. The Occurrence and Distribution of Pollen and Spores in Marine Sediments (in Bronnimann P. and H.H. Benz. 1969. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils. Vol. 11. E. Brill, Leiden. pp. 641-3.

144 Brasier M.D. 1980. Microfossils. George Allen and Unwin, London, p. 47.

145 Wilson R.L. 1976. Palynology and evidence for lite origin of [fie Atokak Formation (Pennsylvanian) rocks in the type area. CA 8(1)72-3.

146 Sadowska A. 1975. Uwage o prowadzonych ostatnio badaniach palinologicznych trozecinzedowych osadow ilastych w Sudetach. Kwartalnik Geologiczny 19:725-31 (in Polish).

147 Herngreen G.F.C. 1976. A probable erroneous identification of Tricolporopollenites distinctus Groot et Penny from lowermost Cretaceous strata in the eastern Netherlands. RP 22:34S.

148 Lytshev G.F. 1978. A New Early Oligocene Beaver of the Genus Agnatocastor from Kazakhstan. Paleontological journal. 12:542.

149 Stanley E.A. 1966. the Problem of Reworked Pollen and Spores in Marine Sediments. Marine Geology 4:403.

150 Barss M.S., Bujak J.P., and G.L. Williams. 1979. Palynological Zonation and Correlation of Sixty-Seven Wells, Eastern Canada. Geological Survey of Canada Special Paper 78-2, 118p.

151 Balme B.F. 1970. Palynologyof Permian and Triassic Strata in the Salt Range and Surghar Range, West Pakistan (in Kummel and Teichert. 1970., op.cit.) p. 382.

152 Soukup J., Konzalova M., and Z. Lochmann, 1975. Relikty Cenomanu a toronu V. podlozi miocenu mezy Jarkovem a Novym Sedlem nad Bilanous. Prague:. Ustredni Ustav Geologicky Ventnik Vol. 50(3)141-52 (in Czech).

153 Shumenko S.I. and M.E. Kaplan. 1978. Discovery of Coccoliths in Lower Triassic Deposits of Siberia. DokLady: Earth Sciences 240-226.

154 Evitt W.R. and S.T. Pierce. 1975. Early Tertiary Ages from the coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex, Northern California. Geology 3:433-6.

155 Kar P.K. 1980. Permian Miospores in the Miocene Sediments of Kutch, Gujarat. PY 10:171.

156 Saxena R.K. 1979. Reworked Cretaceous spores and pollen grains from the Matanomadh Fromation (Palaeocene) Kutch. India. Palaeobotanist 26:167-74.

157 Matsuda T. 1980. Discovery of Perm ian-Triassic mixed conodont assemblage from the Akasaka Limestone, Gifu Prefecture. Geological Society of Japan journal 86:41-44 (in Japanese).

158 Dutta S.K. 1978. A Note on the Significance of the Discovery of Gondwana Palynomorphs in Rocks of Assam, Nagaland. and Meghalaya. PY 7:13 1.

159 Dutta S.K. 1979. Recycled Permian Palynomorphs in Upper Cretaceous Rocks of Juintia Hills, Meghalaya. PY 8:250-1.

160 Beach T.L. and J.B. Urban. 1974. The investigation of Carboniferous Stratigraphic leaks from Missouri and Iowa. Geoscience and Man 9:91-2.

161 Hose R.K., Wrucke C.T., and A.K. Armstrong. 1979. Mixed Devonian and Mississippian conodont and foraminiferal faunas and their bearing on the Roberts Mountains Thrust, Nevada, GA 11:446.

162 Matthews S.C. and J.M. Thomas. 1974. Lower Carboniferous conodont faunas from North-East Devonshire. Palaeontology 17:382.

163 Richardson J.B., and S.M. Rasul. 1978. Lower Devonian spores and reworked acritarchs from the Witney Borehole, southern England, and their geological implications. Palynology 2:231.

164 Haq B. 197 1. Paleogene Calcareous Nannof lora, Part III Oligocene of Syria. Stockholm Contributions to Geology 25(3).

165 Wilson, G.J. 1976. Permian Palynomorphs * from the Mangarewa Formation, Productus Creek, Southland, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 19:137.

166 Chiguryayeva A.A. and K.V. Voronina, 1961, Data on Upper Pleistocene Vegetation in the North Caspian Region. Doklady: Earth Science Sections 131:362.

167 Alvarez W. and W. Lowrie. 1981. Upper Cretaceous to Eocene pelagic limestones of the Scaglia Rossa are not Miocene Turbidites NA 294:246-7.

168 Arkhipov S.A. and O.V. Matvayeva. 1961. Spore Pollen Spectra of the Pre-Samarovo Anthropogene Deposits of the Glaciation Zone in the Yenisei Region of the West Siberian Lowlands. Doklady: Earth Science Sections 135:1204.

169 Scott, R.A. Willians W.L. Craig L.C., Barghoorn E., Hickey L.J., and U.D. MacGinitie. 1972. American Journal of Botany 59:886-96.

170 Morgan R. 1977. Elucidation of Diconodium and Its Straligraphic Range in Australia. Palynology 1:175.

171 Odrzywolska-Bienkowa E. and K. Pozaryska. 1981. Micropaleontological Stratigraphy of the Paleogene in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. Bulletin de L'Academie Polonaise Des Sciences-Series des sciences del la terre XXIX(1)26.

172 Olsson R.K. 1970. Planktonic Foraminifera From Base of Tertiary Millers Ferry, Alabama, JP 44:600.

173 Haq B. 1971a. Paleogene Calcareous Nannoflora Part 1. The Paleocene of West-Central Persia and the Upper Paleocene, Eocene of West Pakistan. Stockholm Contributions to Geology 25(1)8.

174 ibid., P. 13.

175 Norling E. 198 1. Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Geology of Sweden. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 103:256.

176 Pozaryska W., Vidal G., and W. Brochwicz-Lewinski. 1981. New Data on the Lower Cambrian at the southern Margin of the Holy Cross Mts. (SE Poland). Bulletin de L'Academie Polonaise Des Sciences-S eries des Sciences de la terre XXIX(2)170.

177 Grigorovich A.S. et al. 1974. Experiment in investigation of nannoplankton from varicolored flysch in the zone of the Marmorosh Cliffs, Ukrainian Carpathians. IG 16:853.

178 Pocock S. 1972. Palynology of the Jurassic Sediments of Western Canada, Part 2. Palaeontographica 137B. p. 136.

179 Palyford G. 1976. Plant microfossils from the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Palaeontographica 158B. p. 54, 61.

180 Matsumoto T. 1978. Japan and Adjoining Areas (in Moullade M. and AE.EM. Nairn (1978) The Phanerozoic Geology of the World 11, Part A, Mesozoic. El.), p. 92.

181 Winslow M.R. 1962. Plant Spores and Other Microfossils from Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Rocks of Ohio. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 364, p. 1.

182 Barss M.S. 1972. A Problem in Pennsylvanian-Permian Palynology of Yukon Territory. Geoscience and Man IV, p. 70.

183 Budzinskiy Yu.A. and K.A. Belov. 1973, Absolute age of rocks in central part of the Caucasian piedmont. IG 15:194.

184 Scott et. al. 1972. op. cit.. p. 892.

185 . Tan J.T. 1980. Late Triassic-Jurassic Dinoflagellate Biostratigraphy, West ern Arctic Islands, Canada. Palaeontology 4:253.

186 Canis W.F. 1968. Conodonts and Biostratigraphy of the Lower Mississippian of Missouri. JP 42:553-4.

187 Pashkov B.R. 1979. The Sarezk Series of the eastern part of the Central Pamir (Carbon iferous-Upper Devonian). IG 21:53.

188 Miller R.H. 1972. Silurian Conodonts from the Llano Region, Texas. JP 46:556-64

189 Muller 11. 1966. Palynological Investigations of Cretaceous Sediments in Northeastern Brazil (in J.E. van Hinte. 1966 * Procedings of the Second West African Micropaleontological Colloquium. E.J. Brill. Leidin). p. 131, 134.

190 Jacobson S.R. 1979. Acritarchs as Paleoenvironmental Indicators in Middle and Upper Ordovician Rocks from Kentucky, Ohio, and New York. JP 53:120 1.

191 Smith D.G. 1981. Progress in Irish Lower Palaeozoic Palynology. RP 34:141-6.

192 Rexroad C.B., and LV. Richard. 1965. Zonal Conodonts from the Silurian Strata of the Niagaran Gorge. JP 39:12 19.

193 Ethington R.L. and W.M. Furnish. 1962. Silurian and Devonian Conodonts from Spanish Sahara. JP 36:1259.

194 Wilkinson G.C., Bazley R.A.B., and M.C. Boulter. 1980. The geology and palynology of the Oligocene Lough Neagh Clays, Northern Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society of London 137:72.

195 Thompson T.L. and J.R. Sutterfield 1975. Stratigraphy and Conodont Biostratigraphy of Strata Continguous to the OrdovicianSilurian Boundary in Eastern Missouri. Missouri Geological Survey Report of Investigations 57(part 2), p. 70.

196 Barnes C.R. and M.L.S. Poplewska. 1973. Lower and Middle Ordovician Conodonts from the Mystic Formation, Quebec, Canada. JP 47:769. 789.

197 Loeblich A.R. and H. Tappan. 1978. Some Middle in(] Late Ordovician Microphytoplankton from Central North America. JP 52:1237.

198 Liebe R.M. and C.B. Rexroad. 1977. Conodonts from Alexandrian and Early Niagaran rocks in the Joliet, Illinois Area. JP 51:844.

199 Rexroad C.B. and J.B. Droste. 1982. Stratigraphy and Conodont Paleontology of -the Sexton Creek Limestone and the Salomic Dolomite (Silurian) in Northwestern Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 25, p. 4.

200 Cramer E.H. Carmen M.D., and R.D.D. Cramer. 1972. North American Silurian Palynofacies and Their Spatial Arrangement: Acritarchs, Palaeontographica 138B, p. 146.

201 Mound M.C. 1968. Upper Devonian Conodonts from Southern Alberta. JP 42:459.

202 Berg-Madsen V. 198 1. The Middle Cambrian Kalby and Borregard Members of Bornholm. Denmark. Geblogiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 103:227.

203 Konior K. 1980. W. Sprawie "dolnokambryjskiego" wieku nisszej czesci utworow dolnodewonskich z glebolich wiercen obszaru Bielsko-Mogilany. Kwartalnik Geologiczny 24(5)501.

204 Turner R.E. 1980. Ordovician Acritarchs I rom the Type Section of the Caradoc Series. Palynology 4:253.

205 Konstantinovskiy A.A. 1976. Stratigraphy of Upper Precambrian and lower Paleozoic deposits of the Chersk Range. IG 18:103 1.

206 Kugler H.G. and C.M.B Caudri. 1975. Geology and Paleontology of Soldado Rock, Trinidad (West Indies). Eclogae Geologicae HeIvetiae 68:29.

207 Chaproniere G.C.H. 1981. Australasian mid-Tertiary larger fora in iniferal associa t ions a nd I heir bea ring on t fie East I ndia n Setter Classification. BMR journal Australian Geology and Geophysics 6:147.

208 Kecskemeti T. 198 1. The Eocene/Oligocene Boundary in Hungary in the Light of the Study of Larger Foraminifers. PA 36:254.

209 Bombita G. and A. Rusu. 198 1. New Data on the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary in the Romanian Carpathians. PA 36:214-7.

210 Pflug A. 1963. Review of: The Palynological Age of Diapiric and Bedded Salt in the Gulf Coastal Province by Ulrich Jux.

211 Sher A.V., Virina Ye. 1, and V.S. Zazhigan. 1977. The Stratigraphy, Paleomagnetism, and Mammalian Fauna of the Pliocene and Lower Quaternary Deposits around the Lower Reaches of the Kolyma River. Doklady Earth Science Sections (English translations; hereafter abbreviated DE) 234:123.

212 Scandone P. 198 1. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Rocks from Malta Escarpment (Central Mediterranean). AG 65:1313.

213 Ehrlich A. and S. Moshkovitz. 1978. Distribution of Calcareous Nannofossils and Siliceous Microfossils in the Plio-Pleistocene Sediments of the Mediterranean Coast and offshore of Israel (a Preliminary Study). Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 27:66.

214 Shumenko S.I. 1973. Calcareous Nannoplankton from Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary Beds of the Crimea. DE 209:72.

215 Baramov V.I., and L.L. Ankhadeyeva. 1968. A Palynological Description of the Pliocene around Kazan. DE 18 1: 106.

216 Srivastava S.K. 1981. Evolution of Upper Cretaceous III hytogeoprovi nees and Their Pollen Flora. FP 35:164.

217 Chilonova A.F. 198 1. Senonian (Late Cretaceous) Palynofloral Provinces in Cricumpolar Areas of the Northern Hemisphere. RP 35:322.

218 Malkov B.A. and V.A. Gustemesov. 1976. Jurassic Fossils in Kimberlite of the Olenek Uplift and Age of Kimberlite Volcanism in [fie Northeastern Part of (lie Siberian Platform. DE 229:67.

219 Brideaux W.W. 1971. Palynology of the Lower Colorado Group, Central Alberta. Canada. Palaeontographica 135:64-5.

220 Tuchkov 1.1. 1973. New Data on the Age of the Fresh-Water Sandstone Conglomerate Formation of the Aldan River Basin. DE 209:44.

221 Ryder R.T. and H.T. Ames. 1970. Palynology and Age of Beaverhead Formation and their Paleotectonic Implications in Lima Region, Montana-Idaho, AG 54:1167.

222 Elmer F. 1980. Conodont Localities in the Surroundings of Graz/Styria. Second European Conodont Symposium-Ecos 11. Austria: Geologische Bundesanstalt Abhandlungen 35:105-125.

223 Lane H.R. 1974. Mississippian of Southeastern New Mexico and West Texas-A Wedge-on-Wedge relation. AG 58:279.

224 Kedo G.I., Nelcryata N.S. and S.A. Kruchek. 1975. Redeposited Spores in Devonian Sediments of Belorussia. DE 225:74-6.

225 Geobel E.D. 1968. Mississippian Rocks of Western Kansas. AG 52:1746-7.

226 Boucot A.J., Hazzard J.C., and J.G. Johnson. 1969. Reworked Lower Devonian Fossi s, Nopah Range. Inyo County-. Ca ifornia. A G 53:163-7.

227 Aristov V.A. and A.S. Alekseyev. 1976. Late Tournaisean Conodonts from the Scaliognathus anchoralis Zone of East Kazakhstan. DE 229:23 1.

228 Craig W.W. 1969. Lithic and Conodont Succession of Silurian Strata, Batesville District, Arkansas. Geological Society of America Bulletin 80:1627.

229 Pantic N.. Hochuli P.A., and A. Gansser. 1981. Jurassic palynomorphs below the main central thrust of Fast Bhutan (Himalayas). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 74(3)891.

Copyright The Creation Research Society 1982. All rights reserved. Except as provided under U. S. copyright law, this work may not be reproduced, resold, distributed or modified without the express permission of The Creation Research Society. The archival version of this work was published in CREATION RESEARCH SOCIETY QUARTERLY VOLUME 18, MARCH, 1982.